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Station Name Distance Düren, St. Angela Schule is meters away, 8 min walk. More details. Equation 2 is estimated by using the sectorial average of the women on management board ratios WOMB.
AVE for an instrumental variable. With this equation, we preliminarily supposed that WOMB. AVE can be considered as a valid instrument.
Thirdly, we checked the endogeneity of the WOMB variable by applying the Hausman-Wu test on two alternate regressions: the original equation and the one extended with the residuals of the first-stage estimate.
The p-value was around 0. This finding suggests that there is not much to rely on in this approach in this case. Reviewing the table, one of the coefficient estimations for WOMB is significant, except for the dummy of three or more women, which is negative.
However, the number of observations with three or more women is very low, there are only 19 firm-year observations. It is important to point that out because the female board ratio is low in the overall sample.
The question rather concerns the gender diversity is there any female on the board than the absolute number of women is there a critical mass of females.
The received coefficients are not significant. Table 5. Women on management board: fixed effect panel and IV estimations The table summarizes the estimation results of fixed effect indiviual one-way within panel models with year dummies OLS estimation: equations 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8; G2SLS IV: equations 2, 6.
The target variables are return on assets ROA, in percentage points and logarithm of Tobin's Q log Q. WOMB equals to the women on management board ratio.
WM indicates the number of women on the management board. MBoardSize counts the number of management board members.
FirmSize is the logarithm of firm Total Assets in million euros, Leverage is the Debt to Asset ratio, minority is Minority noncontrolling interest to Equity ratio.
Sectorial average of women on management board ratios is applied as intrument of WOMB. The robust standard error of each coefficient is shown in parentheses.
Dependent variable: ROA log Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 lag WOMB Or I spent 14 hours in a teleconference. Usually, I practice sport, especially jogging that cleanses my mind of stress.
Also I watch movies, I cook together with my daughters or I spend a city break in Paris or London. Me and my husband are very active, we bike, we walk a lot.
Also I love to swim and find my balance in yoga that I practice two or three times per week and I complete it with stretching and Pilates.
I rarely have real holidays with my family, I usually blend business meetings with a couple of days of relaxation.
My workplace is very intense, my mind is constantly clicking, it never stops, I need to stay attuned. Any exclusive choice is dramatic and soul-crippling.
I consider myself lazy. I cannot conquer the world, but certainly I can live my life to the fullest and this is my target. Then a colleague started replacing me on Sunday and my sons thought they would convince me to give up working on Saturdays too.
I crunch my teeth, without excellent endurance you cannot make it. Nevertheless, they still face gender-specific challenges. So far, however, research on EEs in transition economies remains underdeveloped.
Drawing on existing EE approaches, we will outline EE components from a gendered perspective for our further analysis.
Afterwards, we will build on secondary data to highlight the central components and characteristics of the Georgian EE in more detail.
By discussing our results in the broader context of women in management in transition economies, we aim to contribute to the current scientific debate.
Keywords: Women Entrepreneurs, Women Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Ecosystems, Transition Economies, Gender, Georgia JEL Codes: L26, M13, P2 Introduction After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many women in transition economies lost their jobs.
A large number of women used their prior knowledge and work experience to establish their own ventures. Women entrepreneurs are therefore an important subgroup of women in management in transition economies, participating not only in the economic but also the social enhancement of a country Welter et al.
Email: lela. Research interests: women entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial ecosystems. Kerstin Ettl, Dr. Research interests: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial diversity, SME management, diversity management, women entrepreneurship.
In doing so, EEs can support women in recognising further business opportunities and unleashing their full potential Brush et al. Taking Mexico as an example, Fries et al.
Aimed at fostering women entrepreneurship, Wu et al. In this article, we will focus on the EE in Georgia. With this article, we aim to bridge this research gap.
More specifically, we aim to shed light on the actors who constitute the local EE. Our analysis enables the discussion of current support gaps and recommendations on how the Georgian EE could be improved, in order to provide more targeted support for women entrepreneurs.
Amongst other aspects, we will broach the issue of historical and socio-cultural influences on gender roles, and how these affect societal expectations of women Lela Griessbach, Kerstin Ettl managers.
We will emphasise that an improvement of institutional structures in general does not automatically bridge existing gender gaps.
Furthermore, as scholars argue that countries in transition where entrepreneurship is in its infancy offer a good opportunity for broadening the research landscape on entrepreneurship Welter ; Hughes et al.
Theoretical Background Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in Transition Economies The EE approach did not arise until the last decade Stam Several authors have suggested different explanations for the complexity of EEs Malecki Five years later, Mack and Mayer built on these EE attributes suggested by Isenberg.
For example, compared to the biological ecosystems that emerge naturally, EEs are artificially built by key actors and processes Stam However, one of their strengths lies in their ability to build interrelations between key actors of the system, both with each other and with entrepreneurs.
Former Soviet Union countries and several transition economies started to establish entrepreneurship policies in the s, just after the collapse of the Soviet Union, where entrepreneurial activity was previously forbidden Chepurenko Not all former Soviet countries have experienced economic transition similarly.
Nevertheless, the most common characteristics of economies in transition was that the Schumpeterian innovative entrepreneurship concept did not turn out to work, as most bottom-up entrepreneurial firms were pushed rather than pulled into entrepreneurship, having limited access to resources, little knowledge and growth-oriented motivations Chepurenko Therefore, the EE approach is crucial for nurturing the development and growth of innovative start-ups in transition economies.
Literature dealing with other components of EEs remains underdeveloped. In particular, they struggle with unequal access to and control over resources.
Moreover, they often take on multiple roles, including family work and The entrepreneurial ecosystem and its impact on female managers care duties.
In fact, existing research outlines the fact that building multiple sub-ecosystems within a regional context, tailored to specific areas or needs turns out to be successful and effective in improving an entrepreneurial community Fries et al.
Accordingly, specific sub-ecosystems which focus on women entrepreneurs and offer gender-oriented activities can connect and serve women entrepreneurs across different phases of business development Harrington Researchers emphasise the role of women entrepreneurs as strong contributors to the maintenance of EE cohesion Malecki Furthermore, women entrepreneurs are more likely to invest in better education for children and to mentor other women Brush et al.
All this implies that ecosystems not only influence women entrepreneurs, but that women entrepreneurs also influence ecosystems Manolova et al. For the present study, we refer to the gender sensitive EE framework and its components, provided by Manolova et al.
For example, women are less likely to pursue entrepreneurial opportunities in male-dominated professions like STEM industries Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics , because they have not had the opportunity to acquire appropriate skills, competencies, and industry knowledge.
Drawing on Manolova et al. All these attributes are essential in providing resources and benefits to entrepreneurs.
In the next section, we will describe the key actors of the EE in Georgia based on gender-sensitive EE frameworks by Manolova et al. The country covers 69, sq.
In , shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Georgia became an independent republic. The official unemployment rate in was Working women in Georgia are in mainly low-paid sectors, such as education, health care, social services, accommodation, food services, and households, while male-dominant sectors are well-paid, even though women make up the majority of the highly qualified labour force ACT and UNDP Georgia ; Geostat b.
Nevertheless, the high professional levels of women does not correspond to their low income AYEG Although Georgian society appreciates successful women entrepreneurs ACT and UNDP , nascent women entrepreneurs are rarely encouraged or supported, especially after starting a family Lezhava et al.
Since , Georgia has implemented significant reforms in order to improve its socio-economic situation World Bank Group In this context, the Georgian government has set itself the goal of implementing strong strategies.
Despite of the successful implementation of these programs World Bank Group , neither initiative has set out any specific measures for gender-tailored support.
Consequently, they fail to complete their function as a supportive force for women entrepreneurs. Gender gaps are visible for instance in salaries and the representation of women in politics.
This may be one reason for a low gendersensitivity of Georgian policy in general. Corporations and the Business Community The World Bank Doing Business Report placed Georgia in ninth place for Ease of Doing Business, confirming successful efforts by Georgia to improve its business environment World Bank Group However, these activities were not adequately translated into the enhancement of social well-being and living standards of the population OECD One of the essential mechanisms for creating jobs and reducing poverty in a country is the provision of a fruitful SME and entrepreneurial environment Fries et al.
Compared to developed countries, the Georgian SME landscape includes Different SME definitions from the Georgian National Statistics Office Geostat and Revenue Service, a legal entity of public law of the Ministry of Finance of Georgia, make an exact The entrepreneurial ecosystem and its impact on female managers allocation of enterprises and therefore a targeted support difficult Machavariani et al.
Table 1 illustrates these contradictory concepts, based on Geostat a and the Revenue Service Type of Enterprise Criterion: Number of Employees Criterion: Annual Turnover Geostat Revenue Service Geostat Revenue Service — Since Since — Since Since Micro Not defined Not defined 1 person Not defined Not defined max.
Such a regulation may have a deterrent effect on micro business owners, who prefer not to grow their business officially but rather engage in illegal employment.
There are nonetheless positive developments for entrepreneurial activities in Georgia too. Women entrepreneurs could benefit from these agreements, as the Georgian government has committed itself to promoting different subgroups of entrepreneurs OECD and encouraging more cooperation between them and other actors in the Lela Griessbach, Kerstin Ettl business sector.
However, it seems that leading actors in the business sector in Georgia, which are large corporations Geostat a , are isolated and tend not to cooperate with SMEs.
Consequently, women entrepreneurs are not easily able to access the important business networks, which would help them to leverage their businesses ACT and UNDP Georgia Financial Institutions For small businesses, the most well-developed source of financing is bank credit EU4Business However, banking conditions for start-up businesses in Georgia remain unfavourable.
Most entrepreneurs claim that banks in Georgia grant credits based on the collateral opportunities of applicants and not based on their business ideas Machavariani et al.
This is contradictory to the views of some experts, who believe that business opportunities in Georgia are equally available to men and women, and that all are equally able to start a business there Lezhava et al.
Japaridze The program also includes training, mentoring and other support initiatives to enable women entrepreneurs to share experiences and learn from each other EU4Business As in other developing countries, women entrepreneurs in Georgia also rely on financial support from families, friends, savings or the sale of valuables, such as jewellery ACT and UNDP Georgia The main requirement is to have an intermediary who endorses the conscientiousness and trustworthiness of the borrower.
Academic Institutions Academic institutions play an important role in training the future workforce and contributing to economic and social development EU4Business Accordingly, students in schools and universities are barely provided with knowledge regarding the importance of entrepreneurship and how to start a business AYEG In addition, many youths are unaware of the most important economic and industrial issues in the country, as this is not explicitly taught at secondary school.
Universities lack a research-oriented teaching strategy that encourages students to combine research and learning throughout their studies.
Accordingly, students are not able to gain access to current research topics and the resources required to get involved in research projects AYEG ; ADP Subsequently, such programs do not offer a strong focus on different groups in entrepreneurship such as women Bzhalava , which is essential for building and fostering an entrepreneurial mind-set Brush et al.
These findings are in line with other studies, which recognise a missing entrepreneurial education culture in most transition economies Ramadani Civic Organisations and NGOs The trust Georgian society places in civic organisation and Non-Government- Organisation NGO work is limited Ritvo et al.
However, because of deep-rooted poverty, these businesses are primarily used as minimum sources of survival. In terms of stereotyping women, Georgian media fails to contribute to the removal of social and gender stereotypes.
The way journalists in Georgia lack appropriate competence and knowledge of gender-specific issues and women rights is widely criticised.
In many TV shows and print media, women are pictured as beautiful but foolish next to men, who are described as strong and successful.
Elderly women and women from ethnic or religious minorities are rarely presented at all MDF It does not cover print media, and therefore makes existing media regulatory norms incomplete, and partly failed.
Discussion and Conclusion In this article, we have aimed to broaden knowledge on women in management in transition economies through offering insights into the local EE in post-Soviet Georgia, and its influence on a specific group of women in management: women entrepreneurs.
To focus our analysis on women entrepreneurs in transition economies, we referred to the work of Manolova et al. We investigated how these components affect entrepreneurial journeys and the outcomes of women entrepreneurs.
We emphasise that the role of the government in taking more responsibility to organise initiatives that connect key actors contributing to the enhancement of gender-sensitive EE in the country is crucial.
Likewise, a growing number of multinational companies from the US and EU that operate in Georgia may play an important role in strengthening gender awareness in the country, and therefore lead to more gender-sensitive frameworks.
In doing so, they can serve as role models for other Georgian companies in their sector. Nevertheless, there are also specific local circumstances that make concepts and implications for developed countries not one-to-one transferable to countries in transition.
These differences are deeply rooted in societal structures, and influence women entrepreneurs and women in management.
It is rather linked to Georgian socio-economic development and its Soviet past, which shaped a specific public attitude towards working women ACT and UNDP This article helps understand how EEs are structured in transition economies.
Future studies could extend the literature review to studies and reports that may not use the term EE explicitly, but examine the importance of environmental influences Lela Griessbach, Kerstin Ettl on women entrepreneurship.
Second, as this article was limited to desk research, and because empirical data on women entrepreneurs in Georgia is scarce, future research should conduct more empirical studies, including in-depth interviews with Georgian women entrepreneurs and key actors within the EE.
References ACT and UNDP Georgia : sazogadoebrivi damokidebulebebi genderul tanasworobaze politikasa da biznesSi [Public attitudes towards gender equality in politics and business], Enhancing Gender Equality in Georgia, Tbilisi ADP — Asian Development Bank : Country partnership strategy: Georgia, — Private Sector assessment Summary.
Ahl, H. Aidis, R. Aliyev, H. AYEG — Association of young economists of Georgia : Study report of the knowledge and attitudes in public schools about entrepreneurial activity.
Bennich-Björkman, L. Female empowerment, security, and elite mind-sets in Georgia, in: Gradskova, Y. Old Legacies and New Hierarchies, Milton: Routledge, 54— Brown, R.
The entrepreneurial ecosystem and its impact on female managers Brush, C. Brush, C. Progress report on the Goldman Sachs 10, Women Initiative.
Developed by Babson College. Bzhalava, L. Chepurenko, A. Engvall, J. Ettl, K. EU4Business : Investing in SMEs in the Eastern Partnership.
Country Report Georgia. Fries, R. Strengthening the ecosystem for women entrepreneurs in Mexico.
Geostat — National Statistics Office of Georgia a : Entrepreneurship in Georgia. Geostat — National Statistics Office of Georgia : Key Indicators.
A comparative analysis, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 44— Gochiashvili, N. GoG — Government of Georgia : SME development strategy of Georgia.
Old Legacies and New Hierarchies, Milton: Routledge. Grant Thornton International : Women in business: the path to leadership.
The important role of entrepreneur development organizations and their activities, in: Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Hughes, K. Iakovleva, T.
Isenberg, D. Japaridze, E. Gender Equality Programme, Center for Social Sciences Jashi, C. Journal of East European Management Studies, Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 7— Lekashvili, E.
Lezhava, B. Special Topic — Women Entrepreneurship in Georgia. Machavariani, S. Malecki, E. Manolova, T. A comparative analysis, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 3— The entrepreneurial ecosystem and its impact on female managers Manolova, T.
A comparative analysis, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Margvelashvili, K. Analysis of existing policies and initiatives]. Sapari: UN Joint Programme for Gender Equality, Tbilisi.
MDF — Media Development Fond : Gendermediator. OECD Eurasia Competitiveness Programme : Recommendations for Georgia's SME development strategy — Working Group on SME development strategy.
Pascall, G. Peinhof, A. ECMI working paper, in: European Center for Minority Issues, Porter, M. Pyke, F. Geneva: International Institute for Labour Studies.
Ramadani, V. Rebernik, M. Revenue Service : Small and Micro Business in Georgia. Ritvo, R. Ruminska-Zimny, E. Sauka, A.
Shahnazaryan, N. Sperber, S. Spigel, B. Stam, E. Sumbadze, N. Todua, N. Gender Overview, in: Strategica, — Welter, F.
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar, 96 - World Bank : Doing Business Reforming to create jobs, Washington, D.
Wu, J. It draws on three case studies of media firms founded in the early s and s in Kyrgyzstan by women. Kyrgyzstan is a curious context for management-related gender issues since women are highly literate and highly economically active.
Yet, female media business leaders are still uncommon. The women that belong to the first generation of urban business owners seek legitimation.
It is particularly acute for the businesswomen that are engaged in cultural production such as media since they are rare birds compared to their female counterparts doing trade and commerce.
Keywords: post-socialist, female business owner, female manager, Kyrgyzstan, media firm JEL Codes: M10 General Business Administration ; M13 New firms.
Introduction Post-soviet context offered an unprecedented opportunity for women to become first-generation self-made entrepreneurs. At present, considering the size of the local Kyrgyz media market, reaching a circulation of 10, copies a week for a newspaper is a benchmark for breaking even Tokbaeva The other media ventures usually seize to exist several months after originating.
Therefore, getting into a business has so far been easier than managing one. Her research interests are media management and charismatic leadership in emerging and transitioning contexts.
Kyrgyz media businesses are a suitable research ground for that. Kyrgyzstan is a developing country with high urbanisation rates and some business niches still to be conquered.
It is a multiple case study of three media firms that were founded, are owned and run by women in Kyrgyzstan. The media companies in a sample are two glossy magazines and a newspaper for women that have been on the market for the period from 5 to 10 years.
All three outlets are produced in the capital Bishkek and distributed to other regions. Hence, a research question is, how do women emerge as media business founders and owners in Kyrgyzstan?
Since Kyrgyzstan gained its independence from the Soviet Union in , many women engaged in small business out of necessity, similarly to their post-Soviet counterparts Korneiko Many women reeducated themselves to start a business.
As of , in general, men constituted The median age for getting married for women in Kyrgyzstan in Research on entrepreneurial motives of females in Kyrgyzstan points out that the desire of gaining wealth is not consistently stronger than the need for recognition Aziz et al.
Women employ different strategies to adjust and balance the social expectations of themselves as mothers and wives and their business needs. They are role privilege, status security, status enhancement, and enrichment of the personality Sieber This NGO also carries out national surveys.
So far, this is the fullest and the most detailed database of Kyrgyz media companies. Thus, based on the NGO data, family businesses and the companies run by women were identified.
The Kyrgyz media market is shaped in a way that most firms are in the capital Bishkek. This research used three selection criteria for case studies.
Secondly, it had to be operating for at least three years3. Thirdly, the business had the same owner as to when it had been started; in other words, the business did not change its owner s.
The pre-final sample selection included four media firms in Bishkek. The author considered that media business is a new sphere for Kyrgyz entrepreneurs.
The rest of the companies gave a positive response to taking part in the academic study and then interviews were scheduled. As a result, three media firms were selected as case studies.
In this paper, the company titles are changed to Magazine A, Magazine B and Newspaper C. Also, pseudonyms are used to refer to the interviewees.
It is done to ensure the confidentiality of all respondents. They were the first point of contact in a media company, and they helped the author to arrange an interview with an actual media owner.
During interviews, they were also asked questions about their personal development as a businesswoman, their challenges and coping strategies, as well as a bit about their family concerning the business.
The same approach was used by Kotter for interviewing top managers. Media experts were asked to provide background information on the Kyrgyz media market development after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Female founders in post-socialist contexts Table 1.
Empirical sources and case studies. Case studies Empirical sources Magazine A 5 interviews were conducted with the owner, sub-editor, finance manager, advertising manager, journalist Company website Magazine B 4 interviews were conducted with the owner, advertising manager, journalist and a former part-time correspondent Company website; available public appearances of the owners on the local television available via YouTube Newspaper C 4 interviews were conducted with the owner, sub-editor, and two journalists, one full-time and one parttime Company website 3 interviews with Kyrgyz media experts: the head of NGO specialising in print media; a media consultant; the business development director at a publishing house.
A national database of print media published by Public Union Journalists a Kyrgyz NGO which contains details about dates of origin, ownership and circulation of print titles.
In total, 16 in-depth interviews were conducted. Interviews took place in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan in The first set of interviews were with female media owners themselves and afterwards with the long-term company employees.
In all three cases, the researcher kept online contact with the media owners and some of the other interviewees for the sake of clarifying some details that would come up in the transcripts or for additional data collection.
The interviews with the owners were the longest of the set and lasted between 1,5 and 2 hours. The interviews with full-time, part-time and former staff and media experts lasted from 30 mins to 1 hour 20 minutes.
Research analysis The obtained data were systematised, labelled and archived according to the case it belonged to and according to themes.
A method of thematic analysis was used to generate analytic ideas King This research made use of datadriven coding, which is also called open-coding Gibbs This approach is consonant with the grounded theory method GTM.
GTM has been adopted in management and organisation studies to capture the organisational behaviour nuances by focusing on actions and decision-making Goulding The final analytic codes were identity and social class.
The validity of data was ensured by constant cross-case and cross-interview comparison. Case studies of female leaders of media businesses This section will present three cases of media firms in Kyrgyzstan that are owned co-owned and run by female business leaders.
The firms are magazine A, magazine B and newspaper C. Alina Temirbekova is the co-owner and co-editor of the magazine together with her younger sister.
In the beginning, we just had an idea. We just did a presentation about our concept to our relatives.
I presented my approach to my husband. The husband helped to register a legal entity and also gave initial capital. We ran out of it in two months.
We went bankrupt. Then we cut all costs, borrowed money again. And three years after we had a profit.
Temirbekova is not a fan of self-promotion and prefers to keep track of public events without showing herself off. Temirbekova has 4 The title of the magazine was changed in order to ensure confidentiality for respondents.
The same action was performed for other two titles featured in this study. Case 2: Magazine B Magazine B was founded in by the Aidarovs family.
A mother of two, Asel Aidarova, said that she decided to start up a business after getting three higher education degrees and working for several companies.
In an interview, she stressed it was her idea to create a magazine, and from the very beginning, it was not only a business project but also a status project.
A magazine was a new concept, and it was risky to invite anyone else [to invest]. I had to ask my husband for his support because it was imperative.
I always needed his advice, and I listen to his opinion. Technically, I am the only founder. An interview with Asel Aidarova Since , the magazine has been hosting an annual awards ceremony in Bishkek to highlight the success of the local business community.
It is what Aidarova currently sees as her business goal. In an interview to the local TV reporter, Kemel Aidarov said he found comfort in the family business run by his wife.
In his words, that allows him to spend more time on his lifelong passion — artistic and singing career. Formally Kemel Aidarov is a publisher and creative director of the family business, while Asel Aidarova is the editor-in-chief and operations manager.
The paper was founded in and reached profitability five years later. Aisuluu Renatova founded the newspaper together with her husband.
She said she was lucky to enjoy full support from Dinara Tokbaeva her husband. He invested in the venture and supported her desire to be her boss all the way through.
We went heavily in debt to publish the first issue. I worked day and night. My husband would help me with carrying the printed copies around.
He would carry them around the city and try to sell them. She is also the mother of two. I have two children, and with the help of our business, I managed to build something for their future.
The reason why I decided to start a newspaper was that I had left my previous job. It would be too late marketwise.
It is good that I made that decision then [in ], that is why it worked out. An interview with Aisuluu Renatova Renatova does not consider it worthwhile to show off her business success.
She does not consider herself a public persona either. She claims that she chose to prioritise stable growth and good relations with partners and employees to fast enrichment.
The family continues to influence roles of a female business owner in Kyrgyzstan, even after the business reached its break-even point. In other words, females see their businesses as indispensable to their lives and a major part of their self-identity.
The educational background and marital status of the media business leaders in all three case studies were the same. They had a university degree.
They were married and had at least two children with the same partner with whom they were running a business. There is a general trend that younger women become Female founders in post-socialist contexts self-employed.
Business ownership in Kyrgyzstan moves away from older age ranges too. There is however a trend as well that bootstrapping a business in a cultural segment such as a media business, at this stage of Kyrgyz media market development when there are not that many niches left, requires certain funds, e.
Considering these factors, even though the entrepreneurial activity attracts younger women in Kyrgyzstan, ownership and co-ownership of businesses will remain a prerogative of women of medial age ranges.
Another issue that is increasingly impacting the roles of businesswomen in postcommunist societies is class awareness Bluhm et al.
According to the findings of this study, Kyrgyz businesswomen are also acute to the fact that they belong to an emerging urban middle class. And as a result of that, they realise they are privileged.
Businesspeople in transitioning post-socialist societies are the first-generation capitalists. Also, they identify themselves through their family, education and marital status.
However, in all three Kyrgyz cases observed, women initiated the company, and the need for recognition was as much the driver of women business owners as an economic necessity.
The interviews with the current and past employees and business partners of the companies observed confirmed that. Finally, this study argues that, for a businesswoman in Kyrgyzstan, informality practices Ledeneva serve as the instrument of sociability and managing business operations.
But the more women are getting established in business; the business survival Female founders in post-socialist contexts strategy is gradually replaced by a business camouflage strategy which allows women to keep doing business while preserving good family relationships.
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Female founders in post-socialist contexts Abstract It seems that Central and Eastern European countries are doing quite well with regard to gender equality in management, a fact that has often been attributed to the socialist heritage of these countries.
The book includes contributions on topics such as The existence of gender stereotypes The effects of women on corporate boards Reasons for and consequences of female entrepreneurship Time practices of women in leading positions Women in local politics and government.
Zusammenfassung In Bezug auf die Gleichstellung im Management gehören die mittel- und osteuropäischen Länder zu den Vorzeigebeispielen.
Das Buch enthält Beiträge zu Themen wie Die Existenz von Geschlechterstereotypen Auswirkungen des Frauenanteils in Aufsichtsräten Gründe und Folgen des Unternehmertums durch Frauen Zeitpraktiken von Frauen in Führungspositionen Frauen in der kommunalen Politik.
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